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Ultra-voltage yumuriro w'amashanyarazi mubushinwa

Gukwirakwiza amashanyarazi ya Ultra-voltage (UHV amashanyarazi) yakoreshejwe mu Bushinwa kuva mu 2009 kugirango yohereze amashanyarazi asimburana (AC) ndetse n’amashanyarazi (DC) mu ntera ndende itandukanya ingufu z’Ubushinwa n’abakoresha.Kwagura ubushobozi bwa AC na DC birakomeza kugirango duhuze ibisekuruza bikenewe mugihe hagabanijwe igihombo.Iterambere rya decarbonisation rizava mugusimbuza umusaruro muke, uherereye hafi yinyanja, hamwe nibisekuru byinshi bigezweho kandi bifite umwanda muke hafi yumutungo wingufu.
Insulation parts for UHVDC

Amavu n'amavuko

Kuva mu 2004, amashanyarazi yakoreshejwe mu Bushinwa yagiye yiyongera ku buryo butigeze bubaho bitewe n’iterambere ryihuse ry’inganda.Ibura rikomeye ryo gutanga mu 2005 ryagize ingaruka ku mikorere y’amasosiyete menshi yo mu Bushinwa.Kuva icyo gihe, Ubushinwa bwashoramari cyane mu gutanga amashanyarazi kugira ngo bushobore gukenerwa n'inganda bityo ubukungu bwiyongere.Ubushobozi bwibisekuru byashyizweho bwatangiye kuva kuri 443 GW mumpera za 2004 bugera kuri 793 GW mumpera za 2008. Kwiyongera muriyi myaka ine bihwanye na kimwe cya gatatu cyubushobozi bwa Amerika, cyangwa inshuro 1.4 zose hamwe Ubuyapani.Mu gihe kimwe, ikoreshwa ryingufu za buri mwaka naryo ryazamutse riva kuri 2,197 TWh rigera kuri 3.426 TWh. muri 2011, muri byo 342 GW ni amashanyarazi, 928 GW ikoreshwa n’amakara, umuyaga wa 100 GW, ingufu za kirimbuzi 43GW, na gaze ya 40GW. Ubushinwa nicyo gihugu gikoresha amashanyarazi menshi ku isi mu 2011.

Kohereza no gukwirakwiza

Ku ruhande rwo gukwirakwiza no gukwirakwiza, igihugu cyibanze ku kwagura ubushobozi no kugabanya igihombo na:

1. kohereza intera ndende ya ultra-high-voltage itaziguye (UHVDC) hamwe na ultra-high-voltage ihinduranya amashanyarazi (UHVAC)

2.gushiraho ibyuma bihindura amorphous ibyuma bihindura

Ikwirakwizwa rya UHV kwisi yose

Ikwirakwizwa rya UHV hamwe numuzunguruko wa UHVAC bimaze kubakwa mubice bitandukanye byisi.Kurugero, km 2,362 zumuzingi wa 1,150 kV zubatswe ahahoze hahoze muri SSSR, naho 427 km zumuriro wa kV 1.000 zatejwe imbere mubuyapani (umuyoboro wa Kita-Iwaki).Imirongo yubushakashatsi yiminzani itandukanye iboneka no mubihugu byinshi.Nyamara, imirongo myinshi kurubu ikora kuri voltage yo hasi kubera ingufu zidahagije cyangwa izindi mpamvu.Hano hari ingero nke za UHVDC.Nubwo ku isi hari imirongo myinshi ya 500 kV (cyangwa munsi), imiyoboro yonyine ikora hejuru yiyi mbuga ni uburyo bwo gukwirakwiza amashanyarazi ya Hydro-Québec kuri 735 kV AC (kuva 1965, 11 422 km muri 2018) na Itaipu ± 600 kV umushinga muri Berezile.Mu Burusiya, imirimo yo kubaka kuri kilometero 2400 z'uburebure bwa bipolar ± 750 kV DC, HVDC Ekibastuz - Centre yatangiye mu 1978 ariko ntiyigeze irangira.Muri Amerika mu ntangiriro ya za 70 hateganijwe amashanyarazi ya kV 1333 kuva kuri Celilo Converter Station kugeza urugomero rwa Hoover.Kubwiyi ntego hubatswe amashanyarazi magufi hafi ya Celilo Converter Station, ariko umurongo ugana urugomero rwa Hoover ntiwigeze wubakwa.

Impamvu zo kwanduza UHV mubushinwa

Icyemezo cy'Ubushinwa cyo kujya muri UHV gishingiye ku kuba ingufu z'amashanyarazi ziri kure y'ibigo bitwara imizigo.Umubare munini wamashanyarazi ari muburengerazuba, naho amakara ari mumajyaruguru yuburengerazuba, ariko imitwaro minini iri muburasirazuba no mumajyepfo.Kugabanya igihombo cyoherejwe kurwego rushobora gucungwa, kwanduza UHV ni amahitamo yumvikana.Nk’uko ikigo cya Leta gishinzwe amashanyarazi mu Bushinwa cyabitangaje mu nama mpuzamahanga yo mu 2009 yo guhererekanya amashanyarazi ya UHV i Beijing, Ubushinwa buzashora miliyari 600 z'amadorari (hafi miliyari 88 z'amadolari y'Amerika) mu iterambere rya UHV hagati ya 2020 na 2020.

Ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya gride ya UHV ituma hubakwa amashanyarazi mashya, asukuye, akora neza kure y’ibigo by’abaturage.Amashanyarazi ashaje kuruhande rwinyanja azasezera.Ibi bizagabanya umubare rusange w’umwanda, kimwe n’umwanda abaturage bumva batuye mu mijyi.Gukoresha amashanyarazi manini yo hagati atanga ubushyuhe nabwo ntibihumanya cyane kuruta amashyiga ya buri muntu akoreshwa mu gushyushya imbeho mu ngo nyinshi zo mu majyaruguru. Urusobe rwa UHV ruzafasha gahunda y’Ubushinwa yo gukwirakwiza amashanyarazi na decarbonisation, kandi itume habaho guhuza ingufu zishobora kuvanaho icyuho cyohereza. kuri ubu irimo kugabanya kwaguka kw’umuyaga n’izuba mu gihe biteza imbere isoko ry’imodoka ndende ndende mu Bushinwa.

Imiyoboro ya UHV yarangiye cyangwa irimo kubakwa

Kuva 2021, imiyoboro ya UHV ikora ni:

UHVDC transmission

 

Kubaka / Mu gutegura imirongo ya UHV ni:

1654046834(1)

 

Impaka kuri UHV

Hari impaka zo kumenya niba inyubako yatanzwe na Leta ya Grid Corporation y'Ubushinwa ari ingamba zo kwiharira no kurwanya ivugurura ry'amashanyarazi.

Mbere y’amasezerano y'i Paris, yatumye biba ngombwa guhagarika amakara, peteroli na gaze, habaye impaka kuri UHV kuva 2004 ubwo ikigo cya leta gishinzwe amashanyarazi mu Bushinwa cyatangaga igitekerezo cyo kubaka UHV.Impaka zibanze kuri UHVAC mugihe igitekerezo cyo kubaka UHVDC cyemewe cyane.Ibibazo byaganiriweho cyane ni bine byavuzwe hepfo.

  1. Ibibazo byumutekano no kwizerwa: Hamwe no kubaka imirongo myinshi ya UHV yohereza, umuyoboro w'amashanyarazi uzenguruka igihugu cyose uhujwe cyane kandi cyane.Niba impanuka ibaye kumurongo umwe, biragoye kugabanya ingaruka kumwanya muto.Ibi bivuze ko amahirwe yo kuzimya agenda yiyongera.Kandi, irashobora kwibasirwa cyane niterabwoba.
  2. Ikibazo cyisoko: Indi mirongo yose yohereza UHV kwisi yose ikorera kuri voltage yo hasi kuko ntabikenewe bihagije.Ubushobozi bwo kohereza intera ndende bukeneye ubushakashatsi bwimbitse.Nubwo umutungo munini wamakara uri mumajyaruguru yuburengerazuba, biragoye kubaka amashanyarazi ahakenewe kuko bakeneye amazi menshi kandi ni umutungo muke muburengerazuba bwubushinwa.Kandi hamwe niterambere ryubukungu muburengerazuba bwUbushinwa, amashanyarazi akomeje kwiyongera muriyi myaka.
  3. Ibibazo by’ibidukikije no gukora neza: Bamwe mu bahanga bavuga ko imirongo ya UHV itazigama ubutaka bwinshi ugereranije no kubaka gari ya moshi ziyongera ku gutwara amakara no kongera amashanyarazi. Kubera ikibazo cy’amazi make, kubaka urugomero rw’amashanyarazi mu burengerazuba ni inzitizi.Ikindi kibazo ni uburyo bwo kohereza.Gukoresha ubushyuhe hamwe nimbaraga kumukoresha birangirana imbaraga kuruta gukoresha imbaraga ziva kumurongo muremure.
  4. Ikibazo cy’ubukungu: Igishoro cyose giteganijwe kuba miliyari 270 (hafi miliyari 40 US $), kikaba gihenze cyane kuruta kubaka gari ya moshi nshya yo gutwara amakara.

Nkuko UHV itanga amahirwe yo kohereza ingufu zivuye mu turere twa kure dufite amahirwe menshi yo gushiraho ingufu z'umuyaga hamwe na fotora.SGCC ivuga ubushobozi bushobora gukoreshwa na 200 GW mu karere ka Sinayi.

Sichuan D&F Amashanyarazi, Ltd.nk'uruganda rukora ibikoresho byogukoresha amashanyarazi, ibice byubatswe byamashanyarazi, bisi ya laminated, bisi ya bisi yumuringa hamwe na bisi ya bisi yoroheje, turi umwe mubatanga ibikoresho byingenzi byokwirinda hamwe na bisi ya baminine kuriyi mishinga ya leta ya UHVDC.Kubindi bisobanuro, nyamuneka sura urubuga rwanjye kugirango umenye amakuru yerekeye ibicuruzwa.


Igihe cyo kohereza: Mutarama-01-2022